I think we should focus on solving the error on your side, as the FacebookSample project should work when you deploy it.
One point that can cause a problem is the licenseKey which is set for the Facebook plugin.
This key is bound to a certain package-identifier and version-code of the application. If you copy the plugin code from the sample project to your own project, the key is not valid anymore for the settings of your project.
But you should be able to run the FacebookSample, which has the correct settings.
If the Qt Creator log does not give any hints about an error, please try running the Android Device Monitor for some more detailed log output. You can find the Device Monitor within the “tools” directory of your Android SDK installation. (or you can start it from within Android Studio)
This should give us some insight on what’s going wrong.